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Urine Test

A urine analysis is a set of tests that are used to detect and manage a broad range of diseases such as diabetes, kidney infection and urinary tract infections. A flexible fiber-optic tool called a cystoscope may be used to check for benign or malignant bladder tumors The narrow, tube-like device is fed into the bladder through the urethra, providing direct visualization of injuries that other imaging and blood tests sometimes miss.
Kidneys also have a number of other miscellaneous roles in maintaining a healthy body including the production of a hormone that stimulates red blood cell production (called erythropoietin ), production of a hormone that helps maintain a normal blood pressure (called renin ), and turning one form of vitamin D into a more active form, which enhances calcium absorption.
Hematuria is the presence of abnormal numbers of red cells in urine due to: glomerular damage, tumors which erode the urinary tract anywhere along its length, h. pylori test kidney trauma, urinary tract stones, renal infarcts, acute tubular necrosis, upper and lower uri urinary tract infections, nephrotoxins, and physical stress.

Urinalysis interpretation is summarized in TABLE 1, with the first four tests most commonly evaluated for information leading to the diagnosis of UTI.1 At many institutions, a reflex urine culture is sent if the urine meets set criteria regardless of patient symptoms.
If the dipstick test or the microscopic test shows white blood cells, red blood cells, or bacteria (possible signs of a kidney or bladder infection), the doctor may send the urine to a lab for a urine culture to identify the bacteria that may be causing the infection.
The change from urine microscopy to urinary flow cytometry has been accompanied by a significant decrease in imprecision ( 15 ). Because urinalysis test strips are often used for checking urinary flow cytometry data ( 11 ), there is a need for a more quantitative evaluation of urinalysis test strips.

Haematuria can be classified as visible, also known as macroscopic or gross haematuria, or non-visible, also known as microscopic haematuria.1 Haematuria can originate from numerous sites including the kidney, ureter, bladder, prostate, urethra or other structures within the urogenital tract.
The analysis of various markers in urine, in parallel with supplemental microscopy, can help clinicians detect, monitor, and manage a number of disease states and conditions, including diabetes, kidney disease, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and pregnancy related disorders.
The test method consists of immersing the test strip completely in a well mixed sample of urine for a short period of time, then extracting it from the container and supporting the edge of the strip over the mouth of the container to remove excess urine.

In New Zealand, in 2009, there were 581 urinary tract cancer registrations for males, compared to approximately 300 for females.8 Treatment is often curative if there is an early diagnosis when the malignancy is localised to the kidney and the immediately adjacent tissue.
Some other conditions that can cause glucosuria include hormonal disorders , liver disease , medications, and pregnancy When glucosuria occurs, other tests such as a fasting blood glucose are usually performed to further identify the specific cause. Like the test for red blood cells, this test can be misread if the sample is contaminated; in this instance, contamination can occur from vaginal secretions, which are high in white blood cells.

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